People living in small Nevada towns, like Dyer, Lund, Duckwater, Mina, Currant and Tuscarora, have been waiting a long time for Internet to arrive. In these rural areas, broadband signal once was out of the question. Now, at least in a few towns, that has changed for good.
When work began nearly 20 years ago to bring broadband into the most remote communities in Nevada, the need was overwhelming. Less than 1 percent of the state's rural areas had access to broadband service. Among those who did, connection speeds were laughable. Today, nearly 27,000 square miles of rural Nevada have access to broadband; about 40,000 more rural residents have access to download speeds of up to 25 Megabits per second (MgbS).
For the folks who live in small town Nevada, it makes all the difference to be able to connect to the rest of the world, whether for education, business or just for fun.
Lindsey Harmon, former executive director of Connect Nevada, remembers that the big telephone companies had absolutely no interest in investing in towers and service for a few people living in mountainous, distant places. The small population size, high mountain ranges and remoteness were a major disincentive.
"Nevada is not just rural, we're frontier," Harmon said. "The biggest challenge for Internet connectivity has not been the last-mile connection—it's been building the middle-mile connection between the metropolitan areas and these remote communities."
Harmon says it's been hard to make a compelling business case to broadband providers to service remote towns. "That's why federal grants - like those from USDA's broadband program, or state programs like Connect Nevada - are so important," Harmon said. "They can help make those connections that wouldn't otherwise occur."
USDA Investments Chart New Territories for Broadband in Nevada
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has helped chart the map for expanded broadband service in rural Nevada. USDA provided $41 million for towers, infrastructure, wireless and mesh networks, and the labor it takes to make Internet service possible. This included $25 million in infrastructure loans to small rural telephone companies like Lincoln County Telephone, Rio Virgin Telephone and Beehive Telephone. USDA supported about $2.5 million in Distance Learning Telemedicine loans and grants for universities and community colleges, rural school districts, Tribes, and medical clinics to develop broadband anchor hubs in rural communities across the state.
Nearly $3 million went to Community Connect Grants to connect small towns to metropolitan areas, and $11 million in Broadband Initiative Program funds supported infrastructure improvements.
"I had to get a little passionate with my colleagues in DC for them to understand how challenging, expensive, yet critical it was to bring broadband to the ranches, towns, and communities of the most mountainous state in the nation," said Sarah Adler, USDA Rural Development State Director. "But once they got onboard, together with the telephone companies and Internet providers serving rural Nevada, we really have made some headway."
Tuscarora and Independence Valley Come Online; Small School Benefits
One remote area that recently came on line is the Independence Valley adjacent to Tuscarora in Elko County. The Rural Telephone Company (RTC) in Elko invested about $2 million in USDA loan and grant funds to extend ADSL2+ high-speed broadband service to existing and new customers in the Jarbidge, North Fork, and Tuscarora service areas. RTC installed 52 miles of new fiber optic cable to replace existing, much slower and less capable main copper cable.
Now, 62 new broadband customers in this remote rural area can access the Internet. A geo-thermal hydropower co-generation plant located in Tuscarora is using T-1 access, so is the Independence Valley School, a one-room school with eight students in grades Kindergarten to 8th Grade.
Shammy Rodriguez, the K-8 teacher at the Independence Valley School says the broadband there has vastly changed the way students learn. "We use the Internet all the time, working at all the different levels, it connects them to their world in a way you could never imagine."
Arizona-Nevada Tower Corporation Enhances Connectivity
It's the Arizona-Nevada Tower Corporation's (ANTC) project—funded, in part, by nearly $8.5 million in grant and loan funds from USDA--that has been the toughest to complete. Last fall the company raised the last grant-funded tower on an extensive 34-site middle-mile network. It has taken more than 12 years to complete multiple projects through rugged territory.
In 2003, ANTC first laid out an aggressive plan to expand its operations. The company applied for USDA funding in 2008, and ultimately complete last-mile remote access to 34 service areas in Nevada. Ultimately, the service is now available over a 27,000-square-mile area; about 270,000 rural residents and 3,000 businesses benefit.
The effort started in Walker Lake and Hawthorne and then inched inward to the central, most remote areas of Nevada. Mina, Gabbs, Railroad Valley, White River Valley, the Duckwater Indian Reservation and Lund are some of the areas that now have access to the Internet. Along the way, as anchor sites built on, more signal beamed out from tower to tower, and many tiny, remote communities came online.
Lund & Dyer Residents Use Broadband to Expand Business
In Lund, Lisa Keppner says enhanced broadband speeds have had "a huge impact" on her home business selling Scentsy Candles. Keppner uses the internet to take orders for her product, to market, and to hold team trainings. "I used to have buy more gigabits when things got busy. Now I can train my team using webinars, take orders, and it doesn't slow down." Keppner credits broadband for helping her increase her sales team from 20 members to 52, and for her recent promotion. "This is all because of Internet access," Keppner says.
In Dyer, located at the foot of Boundary Peak in the western Nevada, Internet speeds have increased little by little over the years.
For Rose Marie Billick, 77, it is now incredibly fast. She and her husband were on dial-up for many years, then switched to satellite, and are happy with the speeds they have with Atom Splash.
Just down the road, her neighbors at the Queensland Vineyard Bed and Breakfast now use the Internet to promote their beautiful lodge and invoice visitors using PayPal. Joyce and Bill Hartman hope the broadband will beam a welcome signal to tourists on mobile phones who come through the area en route to Death Valley.
Tele-Medicine Benefits Tribes in Rural Areas
Meanwhile, even relatively small amount of funding are having big impacts on quality of life. The Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe Health Clinic is building a Tele-Pharmacy with dispensaries at remote rural tribes using a Distance Learning Telemedicine grant from USDA . The system will use the services of the Tribe's Indian Health Service pharmacist and securely vend the medicines to patients hundreds of miles away.